Black and white holes
The notion of a black hole is inextricably linked with the birth of stars . All particles newborn star ( protostar ), of which it is formed , are attracted to its center of gravity forces unopposed . Therefore, the star begins to shrink. As compression protostar its temperature rises , and at the core of thermonuclear reaction occurs . With increasing temperature in the inner layers of the star increases the internal pressure tending to unclench her . When there will be a balance of contraction (gravity ) and decompresses forces (centrifugal forces and internal pressure ) , the protostar turns into a star , and can exist in a stable state billions of earth years .
When all the hydrogen will burn and turn into helium, old age comes the star. And then – death. Large and small star die differently.
Small star , which include our sun die not so spectacularly as massive . When the gravitational forces of the Sun inward counterbalanced by repulsive forces existing between the individual particles , the compression process cease, and the sun gradually cools , becoming a white dwarf.
Otherwise, things with big stars . Here are two possibilities.
If after some compression star still retained a certain amount of a substance capable of explode , it explodes , throwing off its outer layers into space.
However, if the mass of a large star is much higher than twice the mass of our Sun , its ability to explode sooner or later discharged. It will continue to shrink to its critical radius and critical density. The critical radius of a celestial body is determined from the balance of the gravitational force , attracting a celestial body particle, and the centrifugal force acting on the particle , provided that its rotation speed equal to the speed of light. Density heavenly body in these conditions is called critical. For example, for our Sun is the critical radius of 2.9 km . However, calculations showed that our sun can never be compressed to such an extent .
For further compression gravitational forces continue to grow , and centrifugal forces peaked , because the particle can not have a velocity greater than the speed of light. Gravitational forces have become so powerful that no material particle can not break away from the surface of a celestial body.
Such a star is only able to attract all the neighboring particles and the body (” devouring matter” ) , but can not give into the environment of any particle , even a photon. Finally , the compression becomes so great that all the electrons embedded in the kernel merge with protons to form neutrons . Such a star called a neutron .
Its density is several billion tons per cubic centimeter. And this growing density accelerates the process of compression . When the density reaches 150 billion t/sm3 , neutrons are converted to hyperons . Stop catastrophic contraction is not possible.
Such irreversible loss of stability of the space system ( star or galaxy ) , due to excessive compressive forces over the forces of uncompressing called gravitational collapse .
Star, contracting with great force , completely crushes itself by its own weight , turning a few seconds to an ideal point from which , following the Russian astrophysicist NA Kozyrev , reaching a kind of ” channel ” or “tunnel” to another world . Such an ideal material grave star or galaxy is called a black hole. Academician Zel’dovich figuratively black hole called “gravitational grave .”
In the black hole space disappear not only stars in it may disappear entire galaxies . Generally , in a black hole space disappears completely all material , even energy!
What happened to the huge amount of substance dead star ? Where did it go ?
Maybe gone to another physical universe ? But lost in the midst of a massive star of our universe , and not at the border. And there’s no trace of her promotion to the boundary of the universe. In addition, the speed of a massive star to the boundary must be greater than the speed of light , because the universe is constantly expanding with the speed of light . But such speed possible stars .
So maybe as a result of the collapse of a star gone in that ideal world , where , according to the anthropic principle , had the idea of creation of the universe? But the world can not take anything material . He could take stellar matter how positive energy , but only in the form of zero-sum with the same amount of negative energy .
Where you can take such a huge amount of negative energy ? Only from the vacuum environment.
But a huge number of positive and negative energy concentrated at zero volume is required to annihilate and disappear. And if we have the fact of the disappearance of the vast number of stellar mass ( positive energy ), then both should disappear equivalent amount of negative energy is subtracted from the vacuum environment.
It turns out that a large number of stellar matter in the collapse not just gone from our world , it is completely gone , not turned into anything tangible. Yes, even you and take the same huge amount of negative energy from the surrounding space . And the world has taken from the material world to the open channel from the black hole does not matter and even energy , but only information about ongoing catastrophe of matter and energy .
Gravitational collapse serves as a mechanism that brings positive energy to the interaction of matter with negative energy space vacuum that accompanied their joint annihilation .